Bleeding is common during pregnancy especially in first trimester which is normally not an alarming sign. Bleeding during second or third trimester can be a sign of worry and can cause complications to baby or mother or both. Around 20% of women experience bleeding during their first trimester. Bleeding flow is usually low than menstrual bleeding. There can be a number of reasons for bleeding during pregnancy.
Implantation bleeding: Implantation of embryo is the common cause of bleeding or spotting during first trimester. The implantation of fertilized egg to uterine lining can trigger bleeding. This spotting can occur in even initial 6-10 days of pregnancy and often can be confused as menstrual bleeding.
Ectopic Pregnancy: Ectopic pregnancy occurs when embryo gets implanted outside of uterus, mostly in fallopian tube. Fallopian tube gets burst with growing embryo, which can be sign of worry to mother. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is 2%. Other symptoms in ectopic pregnancy are strong cramps in abdomen, lightheadedness.
Molar Pregnancy: A rare condition in which abnormal tissue grows inside the uterus not the embryo. Other symptoms include nausea, vomiting and uterus enlargement.
Breakthrough Bleeding: Some women may have bleeding when their period is due known as breakthrough bleeding. Sometimes, the hormone levels are not high enough to stop period and mostly it lasts for three month. Breakthrough bleeding usually appears at around 4, 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy and is usually accompanied by symptoms similar to periods- backache, cramps etc.
Infection: Any kind of infection in the vagina, cervix cause inflammation in cervix which can be the cause of bleeding.
Sex: After intercourse, some women may bleed due to tender cervix and increased blood supply in pelvic region.
Miscarriage: Miscarriages are the most common in first trimester; this could be the worrying concern with first trimester bleeding. The common signs of miscarriage are bleeding, cramping, backache, stomach pain.
Recommendations: To avoid any problem in future, doctor visit is recommended, when bleeding is observed.
Avoid the use of tampon; wear a pad to keep track on -how much bleeding and what type of bleeding.