Neurological diseases are defined as the diseases of brain, spine and the nerves make up the nervous system and control all the workings of the body. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system such as parkinson’s diseases, autism, alzheimer’s disease, cerebral palsy so on. Several researchers examined the effectiveness of stem cell therapy in treating neurological disorders. Numbers of clinical trials are on-going for such disorders. MSCs are a novel and hopeful treatment option in treating abnormalities like cerebral palsy (CP), autism and alzheimer’s disease. Currently, two different studies evaluate the potential ability of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of CP. According to the study conducted by Lu et al at the Department of Cell Transplantation in the General Hospital in Beijing China. The study group involve 35 children (54% male, mean age 4.1 years) all patients were diagnosed with spastic CP. The patients received autologous MSC that isolated from their bone marrow. At 12 months follow up, the patients showed net improvement of 24.52 compared to controls as per the gross motor function measurement 88 (GMFM-88) scale, and this result is statistically notable at the P<0.01 level . In addition to this, the study conducted by Li et al at institute of neurobiology in Xi’an China. The study group included 27 children (81% male, mean age 7.3 years) all patients were diagnosed with CP. The patients received allogeneic MSC harvested from umbilical cord tissue (UC-MSC). At 24 months post-treatment, the patients indicate net improvement of 7.85 as per the GMFM-88 score which is statistically significant at the P<0.05 level .
In addition to this, various studies utilizing stem cells have been conducted in humans for the treatment of autism. According to the study conducted by Lv et al investigate the treatment safety and effectiveness of transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) and/or human cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMNCs) in children with autism . In this study administration of stem cells was carried out via intravenous and intrathecal infusions. As per the results, treatment is safe, well tolerated without any side effects and no allergic, immunological reactions were reported at the time of injection or during the follow-up period. The cell transplantation showed improvements in visual, emotional and intellectual responses, adaption to change, body use, nervousness, activity level and non-verbal communication, as calculated via Childhood Autism Rating Scale, as well as in lethargy/social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity and inappropriate speech calculated through the Aberrant Behavior Checklist . In conclusion, these studies showed the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of autism and cerebral palsy. Several clinical trials are on-going for the treatment of neurological disorders using stem cell therapy such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease in order to established stem cell therapy as a promising therapeutic tool for neurological disorders.
- Xuebin Liu, Xiaojun Fu, Guanghui Dai, et al. Comparative analysis of curative effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell and bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for spastic cerebral palsy. J Transl Med. 2017;15:48.
- Li Huang, Che Zhang, Jiaowei Gu, et al. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion for Children with Cerebral Palsy. Cell Transplant. 2018;27(2):325–334.
- Lv YT, Zhang Y, Liu M, et al. Transplantation of human cord blood mononuclear cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in autism. J Transl Med. 2013;11:196.