In recent, regenerative medicine is the most emerging branch of medical science which deals with functional renovation of specific organ or tissue of the patients suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease, in this state body own regenerative responses do not be sufficient.
In the current scenario donated organ and tissues are unable to meet the transplantation need of diseased and aged populations that encourage the medical researcher for the alternatives. Stem cells have the potential for indefinite cell division, ability to transdifferentiate into several other types of cells, and have appeared as significant source for regenerative medicine in recent time, repair and regeneration of tissues and organs abnormalities occurring due to hereditary defects, disease, and age related effects.
In the present scenario, regenerative medicine is a main focus of research not only to discover therapies but also to understand fundamental biology and the pathogenesis of disease. Recent development in stem cell isolation and expansion have helped researchers to recognize and culture particular cell types for restoration of tissue in numerous disorders for example Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, or diseases of the heart, muscle, lung, liver, and other organ. Several studies demonstrated the role and potential ability of stem cell as a regenerative medicine.
Stem cells have remarkable potential to help us understand and treat a variety of diseases, injuries and other health-related conditions. Most widely used stem cell treatment is hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation to treat certain blood and immune system disorders or to reconstruct the blood systems after treatment for several type of cancer. The potential ability of stem cells for tissue grafts to treat diseases or injury to the bone, skin and surface of the eye also identified by several researchers.
Several clinical trials demonstrated the potential ability of stem cells for several disorder; Myeloablative, HLA-identical sibling HSC transplantation in children with sickle cell disease results in excellent long-term survival, with overall and event-free survival rates of 95% and 92%, respectively. Additionally, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the highly recognized multipotent stem cell that can be derived from variety of tissue such as bone marrow, Wharton’s jelly, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood.
These multipotent stem cells possess the ability to differentiate into mesoderm-derived tissue such as adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and muscle. In addition to this, safety trials and clinical feasibility for mesenchymal cells also have been published in patients with myocardial infarction, arthritis, diabetes mellitus.
Hare et al. published a dose escalation study of allogenic MSCs (0.5×106/kg, 1.6×106/kg, and 5 x 106/kg) in patients post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute MI. Remarkably, increase in LVEF at 3, 6, and 12 months was found in the MSC group compared to the placebo group. Recently, phase I and II trials utilizing expanded adipose tissue derived MSCs in the treatment of osteoarthritis have revealed MRI proof of cartilage regrowth. Sigficanttly, Hu et al. investigated the long-term effects of the administration of Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) of 29 patients with newly onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The results demonstrated that this stem cell therapy can re-establish islet β-cells function over a longer time, even though the exact mechanisms are still unknown. Therefore, these results recommended that the implantation of WJ-MSCs may be a potent approach for the treatment of T1DM.
In conclusion with research studies across the globe proving the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in various clinical conditions, potency, viability, of mesenchymal stem cell is a well-established fact amongst the research groups and clinicians. Clinical trials with mesenchymal stem cells have showed demonstrative effects especially in patients with mucoskeletal disorders, neurodegenerative disorders. It is only appropriate to expound the regenerative properties of stem cell further to make it available as an alternative treatment to improve the quality standard of living.
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